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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
Jamie Whyel commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:36 AM
Good read. I wish I felt inspired enough to write such good posts onto my own blog. It is not easy.
Linwood Maisch commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:38 AM
When I saw this page was like wow. Thanks for putting your effort in publishing this article.
Fausto Burl commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:38 AM
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Bernardo Irland commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:38 AM
I admire this article for the well-researched content and excellent wording. I got so involved in this material that I couldn’t stop reading. I am impressed with your work and skill. Thank you so much.
Thanh Carne commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:38 AM
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Sarina Blundo commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:38 AM
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Jerica Shilling commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:41 AM
There are certainly plenty of particulars like that to take into consideration. That could be a nice level to deliver up. I offer the thoughts above as basic inspiration however clearly there are questions just like the one you bring up the place the most important thing shall be working in sincere good faith. I don?t know if finest practices have emerged around issues like that, however I am positive that your job is clearly recognized as a good game. Both girls and boys really feel the affect of just a second’s pleasure, for the remainder of their lives.
Iraida Dorshimer commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:41 AM
I was on Twitter looking for Neiko Tools when I found a link to this blog, happy I stopped by – Cheers
football facts commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:54 AM
Superb website you have here but I was curious about if you
knew of any forums that cover the same topics discussed here?
I'd really love to be a part of community where I can get suggestions from other knowledgeable individuals that share the same
interest. If you have any recommendations, please
let me know. Cheers!
Bryon Trombetta commented on 16-Apr-2019 09:09 AM
cheers for such a great blog. Where else could anyone get that kind of info written in such a perfect way? I have a presentation that I am presently working on, and I have been on the look out for such info.
Greg Decatur commented on 16-Apr-2019 09:51 AM
Wow I can’t help but love her! She is beautiful plus a really good actress. I don’t think the show V is all that good, but I watch it anyway just so I can see Morena Baccarin. And I don’t know if you’ve ever seen her do an interview but she is also rather funny and it all seems to come so natural for her. I personally never even heard of her before The V, now I’ll watch anything she’s on.
Dirk Deis commented on 16-Apr-2019 09:51 AM
Can I simply say what a relief to locate somebody that actually knows what exactly theyre speaking about on the web. You certainly know how to bring an issue to light and make it important. More people have to look at this and understand this side of the story. I find it difficult to believe youre not more popular since you definitely have the gift.
Andrew Azzopardi commented on 16-Apr-2019 09:55 AM
Some genuinely good info , Gladiola I observed this.
Archie Irland commented on 16-Apr-2019 10:09 AM
Thank you for another informative web site. The place else may just I get that type of info written in such a perfect manner? I have a challenge that I am just now operating on, and I have been on the look out for such information.
Raymundo Sayle commented on 16-Apr-2019 10:09 AM
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bandar togel terpercaya commented on 16-Apr-2019 10:26 AM
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Kacey Youd commented on 16-Apr-2019 10:41 AM
great . Thanks for informations . Ill be back. Thanks again
Rufina Haggin commented on 16-Apr-2019 10:54 AM
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You should participate in a contest for among the best blogs on the web. I will advocate this website!
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a commented on 16-Apr-2019 11:40 AM
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Sharolyn Raymore commented on 16-Apr-2019 11:48 AM
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See Brandstetter commented on 16-Apr-2019 11:56 AM
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Viviana Bronston commented on 16-Apr-2019 11:57 AM
For example, develop suppliers have worked with the Meals & Drug Administration (FDA) to make sure that the marketplace specifications developed consequence in the ideal and most effective processes. And to communicate any public announcements, the marketplace has created relationships with associations like the National Grocer’s Association (NGA).

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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}

Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
Jamie Whyel commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:36 AM
Good read. I wish I felt inspired enough to write such good posts onto my own blog. It is not easy.
Linwood Maisch commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:38 AM
When I saw this page was like wow. Thanks for putting your effort in publishing this article.
Fausto Burl commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:38 AM
Nice post. I discover something tougher on various blogs everyday. Most commonly it is stimulating to see content off their writers and practice a little there. I’d would prefer to use some using the content on my own weblog whether you do not mind. Natually I’ll supply you with a link with your web blog. Thanks for sharing.
Bernardo Irland commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:38 AM
I admire this article for the well-researched content and excellent wording. I got so involved in this material that I couldn’t stop reading. I am impressed with your work and skill. Thank you so much.
Thanh Carne commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:38 AM
Spot on with this write-up, I really suppose this website needs much more consideration. probably be once more to learn way more, thanks for that info.
Sarina Blundo commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:38 AM
you have a very excellent blog here! do you need to develop invite posts in my weblog?
Jerica Shilling commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:41 AM
There are certainly plenty of particulars like that to take into consideration. That could be a nice level to deliver up. I offer the thoughts above as basic inspiration however clearly there are questions just like the one you bring up the place the most important thing shall be working in sincere good faith. I don?t know if finest practices have emerged around issues like that, however I am positive that your job is clearly recognized as a good game. Both girls and boys really feel the affect of just a second’s pleasure, for the remainder of their lives.
Iraida Dorshimer commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:41 AM
I was on Twitter looking for Neiko Tools when I found a link to this blog, happy I stopped by – Cheers
football facts commented on 16-Apr-2019 08:54 AM
Superb website you have here but I was curious about if you
knew of any forums that cover the same topics discussed here?
I'd really love to be a part of community where I can get suggestions from other knowledgeable individuals that share the same
interest. If you have any recommendations, please
let me know. Cheers!
Bryon Trombetta commented on 16-Apr-2019 09:09 AM
cheers for such a great blog. Where else could anyone get that kind of info written in such a perfect way? I have a presentation that I am presently working on, and I have been on the look out for such info.
Greg Decatur commented on 16-Apr-2019 09:51 AM
Wow I can’t help but love her! She is beautiful plus a really good actress. I don’t think the show V is all that good, but I watch it anyway just so I can see Morena Baccarin. And I don’t know if you’ve ever seen her do an interview but she is also rather funny and it all seems to come so natural for her. I personally never even heard of her before The V, now I’ll watch anything she’s on.
Dirk Deis commented on 16-Apr-2019 09:51 AM
Can I simply say what a relief to locate somebody that actually knows what exactly theyre speaking about on the web. You certainly know how to bring an issue to light and make it important. More people have to look at this and understand this side of the story. I find it difficult to believe youre not more popular since you definitely have the gift.
Andrew Azzopardi commented on 16-Apr-2019 09:55 AM
Some genuinely good info , Gladiola I observed this.
Archie Irland commented on 16-Apr-2019 10:09 AM
Thank you for another informative web site. The place else may just I get that type of info written in such a perfect manner? I have a challenge that I am just now operating on, and I have been on the look out for such information.
Raymundo Sayle commented on 16-Apr-2019 10:09 AM
Oh my goodness! an excellent post dude. Thanks a ton Nevertheless I am experiencing problem with ur rss . Do not know why Cannot enroll in it. Will there be everyone getting identical rss difficulty? Anyone who knows kindly respond. Thnkx
bandar togel terpercaya commented on 16-Apr-2019 10:26 AM
Great goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and
you are just too magnificent. I actually like what you've acquired here, really like what you're saying and the way in which you say
it. You make it entertaining and you still care for to keep it smart.
I cant wait to read much more from you. This is really a tremendous website.
Kacey Youd commented on 16-Apr-2019 10:41 AM
great . Thanks for informations . Ill be back. Thanks again
Rufina Haggin commented on 16-Apr-2019 10:54 AM
There are some fascinating points with time in the following paragraphs but I do not determine if I see these people center to heart. There may be some validity but I’m going to take hold opinion until I take a look at it further. Good article , thanks and we want much more! Put into FeedBurner likewise
Ladonna Joice commented on 16-Apr-2019 10:54 AM
You should participate in a contest for among the best blogs on the web. I will advocate this website!
cost of lead commented on 16-Apr-2019 11:25 AM
Sweet site, super style and design, really clean and apply pleasant.
Trey Hefflinger commented on 16-Apr-2019 11:27 AM
We all do yetabroad suggest to develop virtually any canadinic or labled forward-looking pediatricians that could mononitate pasen through, or even upon [b]user reports on expert viagra[/b] associated with, protherics.
a commented on 16-Apr-2019 11:40 AM
What's up, I wish for to subscribe for this web site to obtain most recent updates, therefore where can i do it please help.
Sharolyn Raymore commented on 16-Apr-2019 11:48 AM
Perfectly pent content material , appreciate it for entropy.
See Brandstetter commented on 16-Apr-2019 11:56 AM
niggas jumpin on they favorite rapper, I will kill your favorite rapper. put him in a grave and start stumpin on your favorite rapper//. so rest in peace to yo mafuckin favorite rapper….. (I just committed suicide)… play it backwards//. . CHECK OUT MY SONG KING OF MY CITY AND SEE WHY VA WILL NEVER BE THE SAME!!.
Viviana Bronston commented on 16-Apr-2019 11:57 AM
For example, develop suppliers have worked with the Meals & Drug Administration (FDA) to make sure that the marketplace specifications developed consequence in the ideal and most effective processes. And to communicate any public announcements, the marketplace has created relationships with associations like the National Grocer’s Association (NGA).

Post a Comment




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Trackback Link
http://www.datascientists.net/BlogRetrieve.aspx?BlogID=10882&PostID=711829&A=Trackback
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