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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}

Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}

Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
board.metin2blackmagic.com commented on 15-Mar-2019 03:23 AM
Hi there, after reading this awesome post i am too delighted to share
my familiarity here with mates.
keto-gc.net commented on 15-Mar-2019 04:15 AM
Greetings from Florida! I'm bored to tears at
work so I decided to check out your site on my iphone during lunch break.
I love the information you present here and can't wait to take a look when I get home.
I'm shocked at how fast your blog loaded on my phone ..
I'm not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyways, very good site!
tropico 6 activation key commented on 15-Mar-2019 04:32 AM
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Keto GC commented on 15-Mar-2019 04:36 AM
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It is now and again perplexing to just find yourself handing out strategies
which many others could have been trying to sell. And we all
grasp we need the website owner to thank for that. The specific explanations you have made, the easy
blog menu, the relationships you can aid to foster - it's got everything unbelievable, and it's leading
our son and the family recognize that that article is
cool, and that is truly mandatory. Thank you for all!
nadzorowac.bizxn.wo.lt commented on 15-Mar-2019 05:06 AM
e - Marketer, a niche research firm, predicts that e-commerce
will climb to $139 billion in 2008. You may already know how
advertising is very important to finding your organization out there.

And do not forget to add your company logo about the front in bold colors as well.
family leader commented on 15-Mar-2019 06:13 AM
Do you mind if I quote a couple of your posts as long as I provide credit and sources back
to your blog? My website is in the exact same area of interest as yours and my users would genuinely benefit from some of the
information you present here. Please let me know
if this okay with you. Thank you!
1Rfid.ru commented on 15-Mar-2019 06:22 AM
Thus, if your worth of the property climbs up in the end of
the period, the rent to own home buyer remains only obligated to spend the
reduced pre-determined price. Doing this will
allow you to get the best deals and also to obtain the apartment
which fits your allowance and taste. You need to confirm the complete split of
rent amount that is to be charged on you.
donnastacy754.pen.io commented on 15-Mar-2019 12:43 PM
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I've bookmarked it for later!
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Hello! Someone in my Facebook group shared this site with us so I
came to look it over. I'm definitely enjoying
the information. I'm bookmarking and will be tweeting this to
my followers! Outstanding blog and great design.
jepara commented on 15-Mar-2019 03:31 PM
Be it technical quality, aesthetic appeal or client interface in each
and every stage of correspondence the business contains the perfect for its big clientele.
There are also some websites available, which really helps to complete the registration process along with also offers aid
in preparing exactly the same and after passing test,
it may help using the procedure to get the card. On the websites, you may also look to know their charges to enable you to
start using a surveyor whose costs are within your budget.
Mallorn Naturals commented on 15-Mar-2019 03:37 PM
Hi my friend! I wish to say that this article is awesome, great written and
include almost all vital infos. I would like to peer more posts like this.
WOW just what I was looking for. Came here by searching for lose 20 lbs
Link Judi Qq commented on 15-Mar-2019 05:28 PM
Hi there I am so happy I found your weblog, I really found you by accident, while I was looking on Askjeeve for
something else, Regardless I am here now and would
just like to say cheers for a fantastic post and a all
round interesting blog (I also love the theme/design), I don't
have time to go through it all at the minute but I have bookmarked it and also
included your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a lot more, Please do keep up the fantastic
job.
prowadzenie fanpage cena commented on 15-Mar-2019 06:34 PM
Please let me know if you're looking for a author for your blog.
You have some really great posts and I believe I would be a good asset.
If you ever want to take some of the load off, I'd love
to write some articles for your blog in exchange for a
link back to mine. Please send me an e-mail if interested.

Many thanks!
무안출장샵 commented on 15-Mar-2019 09:29 PM
hello there and thank you for your information – I have definitely picked up something new from right here.
I did however expertise some technical points using this site, since I experienced to reload the web site lots of
times previous to I could get it to load correctly.
I had been wondering if your hosting is OK? Not that I am
complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will sometimes affect your placement in google and could damage your quality score if ads and marketing with Adwords.
Anyway I am adding this RSS to my e-mail and can look out for much
more of your respective interesting content.

Make sure you update this again very soon.
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best bamboo sunglasses commented on 15-Mar-2019 11:33 PM
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I'll go ahead and bookmark your website to come back in the future.
Cheers
plated commented on 15-Mar-2019 11:57 PM
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Cannabis Trader UK commented on 16-Mar-2019 12:53 AM
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Lin commented on 16-Mar-2019 01:03 AM
As it begins from your junction of Trinity Church Road and
Victoria Road and would go to HAL Bangalore International Airport.

Should you are making a determination to market your
house by having a strategic short sale, you
will greatly take advantage of finding a agent who specializes in one.
So doing a bit of research in finding out an appropriate partner
who could help you to get your home sold is indeed a brilliant thinking.
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Post a Comment




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