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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}

Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}

Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
Columbus commented on 08-Dec-2018 10:33 PM
You're a really practical web site; couldn't make it without ya!


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cleaning companies commented on 09-Dec-2018 12:47 AM
I think that everything published made a lot of sense.
But, what about this? suppose you added a little content?
I mean, I don't want to tell you how to run your website, however suppose you added something that grabbed folk's attention?
I mean Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

is kinda vanilla. You should peek at Yahoo's front page and see how they write post
headlines to grab people to click. You might
add a video or a related picture or two to grab readers excited about everything've got to say.

In my opinion, it could make your posts a little bit more interesting.
Henrietta commented on 09-Dec-2018 04:49 AM
Once the means of traveling is established, you
can begin booking rooms in hotels inside the destinations you'll be traveling to.
This includes medical expenses, loss of income, and pain and suffering.

A 2009 report released from the International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis
Group (IRTAD) indicated that within the U.
Charolette Silton commented on 09-Dec-2018 05:30 AM
Another thing to look out for is how long their girls have been around for. If it seems like there’s high turnover then this might be a sign that there’s something fishy going on. Call girls in Athens know how to look after themselves and if they don’t like working for an agency then there are probably good reasons for it.
Gonzalo Hirsch commented on 09-Dec-2018 06:18 AM
The bottom line is that yes, while you do need to be cautious in reviewing and finding out about Athens escort agencies, the fact of the matter is that with a little sleuthing you’ll have no problem figuring out which one will work for you. Look for great reviews and professionalism in all your interactions with the agency and you’ll be setting yourself up for the experience of a lifetime!
Elfreda Novikoff commented on 09-Dec-2018 08:30 AM
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If some one desires expert view concerning blogging and
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Jade Mccaulley commented on 09-Dec-2018 06:11 PM
Here are the ways where acidic drain openers (in very high concentrations) hydrolyze proteins and fats via acid hydrolysis, similar to their alkaline versions mentioned above:
Erik Daste commented on 09-Dec-2018 06:11 PM
If more than one plumbing fixture is clogged the first choice is normally a drain cleaner that can remove soft or hard obstructions along the entire length of the drain, from the drain opening through the main sewer drain to the lateral piping outside the building. Electric drain cleaners and sewer jetters are intended for this purpose.
Jefferson Brunskill commented on 09-Dec-2018 06:22 PM
Advertising
Sienna commented on 09-Dec-2018 10:32 PM
I am shopping for some christmas presents. I am thinking of buying Dreamgirl Fishnet Bodystocking from Peaches and Screams Online Shop :) I saw a link to this shop on your site and was wondering whether you have any personal experience with them?
Josephine commented on 09-Dec-2018 10:32 PM
I am in the midst of shopping for some Christmas presents. I want to buy Cupless Strappy Teddy from Peaches & Screams Boutique :D I saw a link to this shop on your site and was wondering whether you have any personal experience with them?
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