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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}

Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
私のサイトです。きてください
Shirley commented on 19-Jul-2017 01:41 PM
Hi, i think that i saw you visited my weblog so i came to ?return the favor?.I'm attempting to find things to improve my web site!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!


Here is my blog post:costume jewelry
Ranking szamb betonowych commented on 19-Jul-2017 11:04 PM
It's a pity you don't have a donate button! I'd definitely donate to this brilliant blog!
I suppose for now i'll settle for book-marking and adding your RSS feed to my
Google account. I look forward to brand new updates and will talk
about this site with my Facebook group. Talk soon!
skyrim commented on 21-Jul-2017 02:26 AM
Have you ever thought about creating an e-book or guest authoring on other blogs?
I have a blog based upon on the same topics you discuss and would love to have you
share some stories/information. I know my subscribers would appreciate your work.
If you are even remotely interested, feel free to send me an e-mail.

http://theelderscrolls5skyrimevolution225.ru/
skyrim
[url]http://theelderscrolls5skyrimevolution225.ru[/url]
agen sbobet terpercaya commented on 26-Jul-2017 07:50 PM
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Stan commented on 28-Jul-2017 08:32 AM
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I'll bookmark your weblog and take a look at once more right here regularly.

I'm relatively certain I will learn lots of new stuff proper right
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Keep up the good writing.

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Ranking zbiorników z betonu commented on 02-Aug-2017 10:57 PM
I'm curious to find out what blog platform you're
using? I'm having some minor security issues with my latest blog and I'd like to find something more secure.
Do you have any suggestions?
kanker payudara disebabkan oleh commented on 03-Aug-2017 03:46 AM
Today, I went to the beachfront with my children. I found a
sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said "You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear." She put the shell to her ear and screamed.
There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear.
She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is totally off topic but I had to tell someone!
cash for cars commented on 14-Aug-2017 05:28 PM
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backlinks commented on 16-Aug-2017 10:24 PM
I’m impressed, I must say. Rarely do I encounter a blog that’s
both equally educative and entertaining, and without a doubt, you've hit the nail on the head.
The problem is something that not enough folks are speaking intelligently about.

I'm very happy that I found this during my hunt for something regarding this.
sewa villa di puncak kapasitas 40 orang commented on 17-Aug-2017 12:27 PM
You are so cool! I do not think I have read through anything like that before.
So great to find somebody with some original thoughts on this subject.
Really.. thank you for starting this up. This site is one thing that is required on the web, someone with a bit of originality!
Kasey commented on 18-Aug-2017 03:42 AM
Hello! Do you know if they make any plugins to protect against hackers?
I'm kinda paranoid about losing everything I've worked hard on. Any tips?

Also visit my web pageharry potter and the half blood prince
orpat alarm clock online shopping india commented on 21-Aug-2017 12:31 PM
you are really a good webmaster. The web site loading speed is incredible. It seems that you are doing any unique trick. Furthermore, The contents are masterwork. you've done a wonderful job on this topic!
online alarm clock calls your phone commented on 21-Aug-2017 12:33 PM
I am constantly invstigating online for ideas that can aid me. Thx!
http://www.gaoodgle.com commented on 26-Aug-2017 10:16 AM
Hi, i feel that i noticed you visited my blog
so i got here to go back the favor?.I'm trying to to
find issues to enhance my website!I suppose its adequate to use some of your ideas!!
http://vikinglife.se commented on 26-Aug-2017 03:03 PM
We stumbled over here from a different page and thought I may as
well check things out. I like what I see so now i'm following
you. Look forward to finding out about your web page for a second time.
Ruben commented on 26-Aug-2017 09:48 PM
Why viewers still use to read news papers when in this technological world the whole thing is available on web?
Cecelia commented on 27-Aug-2017 04:16 AM
Right away I am going away to do my breakfast, once having my breakfast coming over
again to read more news.
posluga.com.ua commented on 27-Aug-2017 04:05 PM
Heya this is kinda of off topic but I was wanting to
know if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code
with HTML. I'm starting a blog soon but have no coding knowledge so I wanted to get advice
from someone with experience. Any help would be enormously appreciated!
a13.sitetemporaire.net commented on 27-Aug-2017 06:20 PM
Hello, i think that i saw you visited my blog thus i came
to “return the favor”.I'm trying to find things to improve my web site!I suppose its ok to use
a few of your ideas!!
http://web.enerjiuzmanlari.org.tr commented on 29-Aug-2017 07:12 AM
I pay a visit each day a few web sites and websites to read content, but this
webpage provides quality based articles.
healthcare.randstadusa.com commented on 29-Aug-2017 07:13 AM
Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is a really well written article.
I will be sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post.
I'll definitely comeback.
Angeline commented on 29-Aug-2017 09:35 AM
I was suggested this website by means of my cousin. I'm now not positive whether or not this
publish is written by him as nobody else understand such unique approximately my problem.
You're amazing! Thanks!
Anderson commented on 29-Aug-2017 06:33 PM
I would like to thank you for the efforts you have put in penning this blog.
I am hoping to see the same high-grade blog posts
by you later on as well. In truth, your creative writing abilities has encouraged me to
get my own site now ;)

Post a Comment




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